Dark matter, dark energy, String Theory

Enjoy watching this long presentation

This is a short version

Have we found the dark matter “particle” yet?  No.

So in science, a lot of guesses still.

And a short video on String Theory

A lot of theories still not yet proven!

2 thoughts on “Dark matter, dark energy, String Theory

  1. My Plasma, Dark Matter Be~Do!

    http://plasmascience.net/tpu/ubiquitous.html
    Beyond the filamentation, by far the most distinguishing
    characteristic of energetic plasma in comparison with the
    states of matter on the crutial regions of planets is that
    plasma are prodigious producers of electromagnetic
    radiation.

    visible plasma electromagnetic radiation
    Black Hole-spits (vpers)-White Hole

    http://www.electric-cosmos.org/index.htm

    dusty plasmas – grain plasmas
    http://www.lycos.com/info/plasma–atoms.html
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dusty_plasma
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Astrophysical_plasma

    Astrophysical plasmatist

    baryonic matter
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baryon

    Dark Matter-unknown composition
    http://www.keshetechnologies.com/pdfs/Dark_Matter.pdf
    Dark Matter, what makes this matter undetectable through
    any visible system, is the existence and operation of a
    double and equal and opposite plasmatic magnetic field
    within the physical structure of that matter.

    anti-plasmatic magnetic field
    http://www.1stardrive.com/solar/chem.htm

    Einstein showed there is a direct relationship between the
    energy of a photon and energy of a mass. Thus, it has been
    postulated that mass itself is resonant energy trapped in
    a closed electro-tonic system.

    Thus making: Dark Matter a type of Free mass or resonant
    energy which exists in an Open Electro-tonic Astrophysical
    Plasmatic System.

    Mass-Engaged-Mass

    Dark Matter is Matter Engaged(tele-suspended).

  2. Quantized space-time is the latent form of matter as an alternative to dark matter.

    Antigravitation. Accelerated recession of galaxies
    From the book: Leonov V. S. Quantum Energetics. Volume 1. Theory of Superunification.
    Cambridge International Science Publishing, 2010, pp. 248-251.
    http://leonov.inauka.ru/

    Figures and formulas see the Leonov’s book.

    Quantized space-time is the latent form of matter as an alternative to dark matter.

    Antigravitation is the opposite of gravitation. If the gravitational effect leads to the mutual attraction of the solids which rolled into a gravitational well (Fig. 3.15), the effect of antigravitation is directed to mutual repulsion of solids and particles. The effect of gravitation is linked with the plus mass (or plus density of matter) which is included in the solutions (3.77) and (3.78) of the Poisson equation (3.79) and (3.80). Antigravitation is associated with the formation of the minus mass (–m) in the elastic quantised medium. The effect of this mass changes the sign in the solutions (3.77) and (3.78) of the opposite sign:

    Figure 3.19 shows the gravitational diagram of the minus mass of the distribution of the quantum density of the medium (3.153) and gravitational potentials (3.154) [12, 15, 16]. The gravitational diagram of the minus mass differs greatly from the gravitational diagram of the plus mass (Fig. 2.11) by the fact that the quantum density of the medium inside the gravitational boundary RS in the case of the plus mass increases as a result of its spherical compression and in the case of the minus mass the quantum density inside the gravitational boundary decreases because of its stretching. This is possible if the external tensioning of the quantised medium is greater than the tensioning of the gravitational boundary. Evidently, the state of the particles (solids) is highly unstable. This is confirmed by the actual absence of a large number of particles with the minus mass.

    The presence of the minus mass does not yet mean explicitly that the particle belongs to antimatter. For example, the electron and the positron have the plus mass, although the positron is an antiparticle in relation to the electron. However, this is a very large problem, which is outside the framework of this chapter.

    The presence of the minus mass is used as an indication of antigravitational interactions in which the particles (solids) have the property of antigravitational repulsion, in contrast to gravitational attraction. However, it should be mentioned immediately that the direction of the force is not determined by the presence of the mass or minus mass but by the direction of the deformation vector D (3.90) of the quantised medium which is always directed in the region its extension:

    For the plus mass (Fig. 3.15), force Fn, like the vector D acting on the test mass m are directed to the bottom of the gravitational hole in the region of reduction of the quantum density of the medium. The minus mass forms a gravitational hillock (Fig. 3.19). Vector D and also force Fn are directed to the region of reduction of the quantum density of the medium, i.e., in the direction opposite of the perturbing minus mass. It appears that the test mass m tends to roll down from the gravitational hillock, showing the properties of antigravitational repulsion. It should be mentioned that the minus mass cannot always show the antigravitational properties. If the perturbing mass M forms a gravitational well, and the minus mass [–m] <<M, the gravitational well is capable of pulling in the minus mass.

    We encounter the phenomenon of gravitational repulsion in everydays life. For example, orbital electrons do not fall on the atom nucleus because of the presence on the surface of nucleons of the gravitational interface which has the form of a steep gravitational hillock (Fig. 3.11). The electron finds it very difficult to overcome the hillock. In fact, the interface with radius RS is a potential gravitational barrier which can be overcome only in the presence of a tunnelling effect which is characteristic of the alternating shell of the nucleon. Electron capture is possible only in this case [14]. In other cases, the effect of antigravitational repulsion does not allow the electron to fall on the atomic nucleus. In this case, the antigravitation phenomenon is not linked with the minus mass and is determined only by the direction of the deformation vector D which is always directed into the region of reduction of the quantum density of the medium.

    This example shows convincingly that antigravitation is also widely encountered in nature, like gravitation. This knowledge results in new fundamental discoveries. We can mention examples of the presence of an electron of the zones of antigravitational repulsion which have a significant effect in the interaction of the electron with other particles at shorter distances. The same zones are found, as already mentioned, in the alternating shells of the nucleons, generating repulsive forces at short distances, which balance the nuclear forces, not allowing the nucleons to merge into a single atomic nucleus and disappear in it [14]. At shorter distances, the effect of antigravitation is comparable with the effect of electrical forces because it is determined by the deformation vector D on a very steep gravitational hillock (Fig. 3.11) and not by interacting masses.

    To complete this section, it is necessary to mention an example of global antigravitation repulsion on the scale of the universe which is experimentally detected as the effect of accelerated recessions of the galaxies [47]. It has been suggested in astrophysics that this effect can be explained only by the effect of antigravitation, but it is erroneously assumed that the centre of the universe contains a large quantity of hidden minus mass. As already mentioned, the effect of antigravitation should not be linked unavoidably with the presence of the minus mass, and it is sufficient to form the direction of the deformation vector D as a result of the redistribution of the quantum density of the medium.

    This model of the universe with the cyclic redistribution of the quantum density of the medium whose gradient determines the direction of the deformation vector and forces in the region with a lower quantum density of the medium, was proposed as early as in 1996 [5, 6]. Figure 3.20a shows the model of a closed universe in the form of a spherical shell of a specific thickness filled with an elastic quantised medium. Inside and outside there is emptiness (or something we know nothing about). This shell has the form of a volume resonator with the oscillations of the quantum density of the medium which is cyclically distributed from the internal interface to the periphery, and vice versa. The distribution of the quantum density of the medium inside the shell in the region A at some specific moment of the oscillation period is shown in Fig. 3.20b. It may be seen that the gradient of the quantum density of the medium which determines the direction of the effect of the vector D and forces F is directed to the periphery and prevents accelerated recession of the galaxies.

    In all likelihood, the period of natural oscillations of the universe, linked with the cyclic redistribution of quantum density of the medium in the thickness of the shell, can be expressed in tens of billions of years. It may be predicted that after one billion years, the redistribution of the quantum density of the medium in the shell of the universe changes to the opposite. In this case, the galaxies start to move in accelerated fashion to the internal interface of the universe. I do not present here the results of calculations of the cyclic oscillations of the quantum density of the medium in the shell model of the universe because this is the area of work of professional astrophysicists, like the investigations of black holes (Fig. 3.12).

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